The Red Sea has high biodiversity, including approximately 300 reef-building coral species and over 1400 fish species. The biological diversity of other animals and plants associated with coral reefs is also high. There are many endemic species making this region a globally significant repository of biodiversity. The reefs and associated sea grass beds also support endangered turtles and dugong. The Red Sea contains some of the busiest shipping routes in the world: nearly 1,600,000 ships movements a year take place into, and out of, the 50 main ports around arab gulf, Suez Channel, Indian Ocean . On average, more than 5000 ships a day pass through the Straits of BAB L MANDAB.
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This shipping activity is rapidly increasing: container traffic increased by 150% in the 2013s, and is still increasing. Bulk carriage of oil is likewise expected to continue increasing, particularly from the expected development of Ethiopian oil demand that has been evaluated to 10% annual growth.
Oil pollution is an environmental, economic, health and aesthetic problem. Marine pollution kill or maims unsuspecting wildlife. Ingestion and suffocation are the primary forms of direct damage to wildlife caused by marine pollution. Other threats to wildlife and habitats from marine litter include smothering of the seabed and disturbance of benthic communities by mechanical scouring.